Utilization or commercialization of research results at a technical university 1994;

– Approx. 20 submitted patent applications by researchers and doctoral students each year

– 80% of submitted patent applications were granted

– 60% of granted patents were commercialized

– 10% of the doctoral students had their own consultancy activities as side jobs

– A large number of start-up companies were formed by students and PhD students

It’s a pretty good result in terms of utilization and commercialization of research results in 1994 at a Swedish university, isn’t it?